Social Science Class 10 Important Questions Political Science Chapter 2 Federalism
Federalism Important Questions– Given in this post is NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 2 Federalism Important Questions. The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 Political Science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The NCERT solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers.
Multiple Choice Questions (1 Mark Each)
CHOOSE THE MOST APPROPRIATE OPTION.
- When were the regional governments in Belgium given constitutional powers that were no longer dependent on the central government
Answer – C. 1993
- Which form of government exists in Belgium?
Answer- B. federal
- Which government system exists in Sri Lanka?
Answer- A. unitary
- How many of the world’s 193 countries are federations?
Answer- C. 25
- What percentage of the world’s population resides in federal nations?
Answer – C. 40%
- ‘Most of the large countries of the world are federations’
Which nation is an exception to this rule?
Answer- B. china
- Can there exist more than one level of government in a country without a federal political system?
- Nothing can be said
Answer- A. true
- In a unitary government, the sub units of government are ___________ the central government.
- Subordinate to
- Independent of
- Passing orders to
- None of the above
Answer- A. subordinate to
- In which governmental system, the state government is not answerable to the central government?
Answer- B. federal
- At least, how many levels / tiers of government must a federation have?
- This is an unnecessary detail
Answer- B. 2
- In a federation, different tiers of government govern __________ citizens
- The same
- All of the above
Answer- C. the same
- In a federation, different tiers of government have their own _______________ in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
Answer- D. Jurisdiction
- In federal systems, the existence and authority of each tier of government is guaranteed by _______________
- The law
- The constitution
- The central government
- The president
Answer – B. the constitution
- ___________ have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government.
- Federal government
- State governments
Answer – C. courts
- Federalism works in countries with abundance of ____________
- Land and other resources
- Regional diversity
- International relations
Answer- C. regional diversity
- The exact balance of power between the central and the state government depends on ____________ of the federation
- Geographical extent
- Historical context
- Ambiguity of jurisdiction
- Financial stability
Answer- B. Historical context
- How many kinds of routes to the formation of a federation are there?
Answer- B. 2
- Take into account the next two assertions.
- The boundaries between the federal and provincial governments are very apparent in federations.
- India is a federation since the Constitution specifies the powers of the Union and State Governments and grants them sole authority over their respective subjects.
- Since Sri Lanka is divided into provinces, it is a federation.
- Due to the devolution of some state authorities to local government entities, India is no longer a federation. The boundaries between the federal and provincial governments are very apparent in federations.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
- A, B and C
- A, C and D
- A and B only
- B and C only
Answer- C. A and B only
- Which one of the following is not a ‘holding together’ federation?
Answer- C. Australia
- India is a _____________________
- ‘Coming together’ federation
- ‘Holding together’ federation
- Both of the above
- None of the above
Answer- B. ‘holding together’ federation
- Distribution of legislative powers is done through how many lists?
Answer- B. 3
- ___________ list contains subjects of national importance.
Answer – A. Union
- Adoption and succession are subjects in the _____________ list
Answer- D. Concurrent
- Which list contains matters of common interest to both levels of government?
Answer- C. concurrent
- Police and trade are subjects in __________ list.
Answer- C. state
- Which list contains the subjects of agriculture and irrigation?
Answer- C. state
- Communications are under legislative jurisdiction of which government?
Answer- A. Union government
- When we need a uniform policy on matters throughout the country, we include them in __________ list.
Answer- A. union
- The law made by which government will prevail in case of a conflict between two laws on a subject in the concurrent list?
- State government
- Union government
- The supreme court
- Both will be negated
Answer – B. The Union government
- The subject that came up after the constitution was made or do not fall into any of the lists are called ___________
- Dispensable subjects
- Abounding subjects
- Residuary subjects
- Concurrent list
Answer- C. Residuary subjects
- According to the Constitution, in which year was the use of English for official purposes to stop?
Very Short Answer Type (1 Mark Each )
- What is federalism?
Answer– Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
- What kind of a political system does India have?
Answer– India has a federal political system.
- How many levels of government does a federation usually have? How are powers divided between the two?
Answer- Usually, a federation has two levels of government.
One is the government for the entire country that is usually responsible for a few subjects of common national interest. The others are governments at the level of provinces or states that look after much of the day-to-day administering of their state.
- What do you mean by jurisdiction?
Answer- The area over which someone has legal authority is called as jurisdiction. This area may be defined in terms of geographical boundaries or in terms of certain kinds of subjects.
- Mention any 2 key features of federalism.
- There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.
- Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
- How can the fundamental provisions of the constitution be changed in a federation?
Answer- The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government; they require the consent of both the levels of government.
- How can disputes between different levels of government be resolved?
Answer- Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels. The highest court acts as an umpire in such a situation.
- How is financial autonomy of each tier of government ensured?
Answer- To ensure financial autonomy of each tier of government, their sources of revenue are clearly specified.
- What are the two aspects that an ideal federal system must have?
Answer- An ideal federal system has both these aspects to exist altogether:
- mutual trust
- State the dual objectives of a federal system.
Answer – The dual objectives of a federal system-
- to safeguard and promote unity of the country
- to accommodate regional diversity
- What determines the type of a federation?
Answer– The historical context to the formation of the federation determines its type.
- What are ‘coming together’ federations?
Answer- In these federations, historically, independent States came together on their own to form a bigger unit, so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity they can increase their security.
- Give examples of ‘coming together’ federations.
Answer- The USA, Switzerland and Australia are coming together federations.
- Which local body has a ‘Mayor’ as its head?
Answer- Head of Municipal Corporation is a mayor.
- What other factors of the federations’ cooperation, besides politics, exist?
Answer- Along with politics, culture, ideology, and history also play a role in maintaining the federations’ unity. The efficient operation of nations has also been assisted by a culture of trust, cooperation, respect, and restraint.
- How many seats are reserved for women in the local bodies in India?
Answer- In India’s local bodies, at least one-third of the seats are set aside for women.
- Give the names of any two subjects that are on the Union List.
Answer- The Union List covers defence and foreign policy.
- What standing does the Indian Constitution accord to the “Hindi” language?
Answer– According to the Indian Constitution, Hindi is now considered to be the country’s “Official Language.”
- Name the subject list from which both the Union and the State governments can make laws?
Answer– Concurrent List
- Which language is used for a large portion of official work in Indian States?
Answer- The official language of the relevant state is used for the majority of official activity in Indian States.
Short Answer Type Questions (3 marks each)
- Why is decentralisation favoured in democracy? Identify any two reasons.
- Decentralization is the process of transferring authority from the federal government and state governments to local ones. Decentralization is fundamentally based on the premise that many difficulties and problems are best resolved locally. People are more knowledgeable about the issues in their communities.
- Additionally, the people can take part in decision-making directly at the local level. This fosters the development of democratic involvement as a habit.
- One crucial democratic concept, local self-governance, can best be realised through local government.
- Describe the vertical power structure using an example from India.
Answer- The vertical distribution of power refers to how authority is distributed among the various tiers of the government. Both upper and lower governmental levels are involved. The Union government, the State government, and the Local government are these levels. The Union government is the highest level of government in India. The State government is in charge at the provincial or regional level. The allocation of power is further outlined in the Indian Constitution. The levels of governance below the state governments are also included in this power breakdown. In urban regions, they are also known as Municipal Corporations, Municipalities, and in rural areas, Panchayati Raj. Every level of government makes use of its authority. Each level has its own authority and realms of control, and none of the levels can affect how the others operate. A situation like this assures that democracy is strengthened.
- State two agreements through which federations have been formed. Give an example of each.
- “Coming together” federations — This agreement encourages independent states to band together on their own to form a larger organisation so that they can strengthen their security by sharing sovereignty and maintaining their individual identities.
- USA, Switzerland, and Australia are a few examples. All of the member states are equally powerful and powerful in relation to the federal government.
- “Holding together” federations – In this arrangement, a sizable nation chooses to allocate its authority between the member States and the federal government. When compared to the states, central governments often have more power. The federation’s constituent parts frequently have unequal authority. Some units are given unique authority; for instance, India gave Jammu and Kashmir special authority.
- Spain and Belgium are two further instances.
- Mention any five features of federalism
Answer- The characteristics of federalism:
- Two or more tiers of governance exist.
- The same citizens are governed by various tiers of government, each of which has its own jurisdiction over particular areas of law, taxation, and administration.
- Each level of government has a constitution that governs its existence and power.
- The Constitution’s essential clauses cannot be amended unilaterally. Both
- To guarantee each level of government’s financial independence, certain revenue sources are identified.
The federal system has two goals. In order to protect and advance the unity of the country, and to accommodate regional diversity.
- Describe the five decentralization-related adjustments made to the Constitution following the 1992 amendments.
- After 1992, the following actions were made in the direction of decentralisation.
- Regular elections for local government bodies have become legally required.
- In the elected bodies, seats were set aside for members of the Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), and Other Backward Communities (OBCs).
- Women made up one-third of the population.
- For the purpose of holding local body elections, a separate organisation known as the state election commission was established.
- State governments were required to distribute this authority and income to local organisations.
- Describe in brief the language policy of India?
- No single language was given the title of national language under our Constitution.
- The creation of linguistic states helped to unify the nation and simplified management.
- The nation’s leaders took a very careful approach to promoting Hindi usage. The designated official language is Hindi.
- In Tamil Nadu, the 1965 restriction on the use of English in official settings took a violent turn. In response, the Central Government agreed to keep using both Hindi and English for official reasons.
- In addition to Hindi, the Constitution lists 21 other languages as scheduled languages.
- This flexibility shown by Indian leaders helped our country avoid the situation that Sri Lanka finds itself in.
- How is sharing of power between the Union and the State Governments basic to the structure of the Constitution of India? Explain.
[CBSE OD, Set 1, 2019]
Answer- The Constitution’s core framework includes a division of authority between the Union and the States. By splitting the subjects into a Union list and a state list, on which these governments can make laws accordingly, the Constitution has distributed the legislative powers between the State government and the Union government. Additionally, both governments have a concurrent list on which they may pass laws. Additionally, in states like Jammu and Kashmir, state administrations have their own power. The power-sharing structure cannot be changed by Parliament alone.
It had to first be approved by both houses of Parliament with a minimum 2/3 majority before any changes could be made. After then, it must be approved by the legislatures of at least half the states. This distribution of power is well embedded in the provisions of the Constitution and is thus, its basic structure.
- Describe any three provisions of amendment made in ‘Indian Constitution’ in 1992 for making ‘Three-Tier’ government more effective and powerful.
Answer- In 1992, a significant step toward decentralisation was made. Changes to strengthen and increase the effectiveness of the third tier of democracy:
- Regular local elections are now required under the constitution. Federal agencies
- Seats are set aside in the executive and elected bodies of these schools for the SC/ST/backward classes. The majority of jobs reserve at least one-third of them for women.
- There is a private organisation called as of now, the State Election Commission been established in each state to hold municipal and panchayat elections. The State Governments are necessary.
- to split some authority and income with regional government organisations.
- Explain the three major provisions of the Constitutional Amendment of 1992 which really strengthened the third tier of democracy in India? [CBSE, Term 1, 2015]
Answer – The 1992 amendment is the 73rd to the Indian Constitution, adding a new section called “panchayats” to Part IX. The following are the main clauses of this amendment:
- The establishment of a state electoral commission to oversee Panchayati Raj institution elections
- For a period of five years, a State Finance Commission will be established in each state to assess the Panchayati Raj institution’s financial situation.
- The Panchayati Raj institution’s tenure was set at five years, and a three-tier Panchayati Raj structure was established at the zila, block, and village levels.
- Describe any three features of ‘federal government’.
Answer- Below are the characteristics of “federal government”:
- The number of levels (tiers) of government is at least two.
- Despite the fact that they oversee the same citizens, each level of government has its own jurisdiction in areas of legislation, taxation, and administration.
- The Constitution specifies and guarantees the rights and obligations of each level of government.
- The Supreme Court has the authority to resolve conflicts involving federal governments.
- No one level of government has the authority to change the Constitution’s fundamental provisions.
- The Constitution and the legislative power specify the divisions of authority.
Source Based Questions (1 X 4 = 4 marks)
- Look at the following picture
Image credits –
NCERT, Textbook in History for class 10 – ‘India and the Contemporary World’.
- Hindi is the mother tongue of only about what per cent of Indians.
Answer – 40
- How many languages are recognised as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution?
Answer – 22 scheduled languages.
- According to the Constitution, in which year was the use of English for official purposes to stop?
Answer – in the year 1965.
- Which quality shown by Indian political leaders helped our country avoid the kind of situation that Sri Lanka finds itself in?
Long Answer Type Questions (5 marks each)
- Describe any three features of ‘unitary government’. [CBSE Delhi, Set 1, 2020]
Below are the three characteristics of “unitary government”:
- Centralization of Powers: The central government has all power and serves as the repository for all state authority. In this system, there are no regional governments, and the Constitution gives the federal government absolute ability to enact, carry out, and decide cases.
- One-State Government: A unitary government is a relatively straightforward structure. There are no regional assemblies and executives nor the upper chambers, with the exception of Britain. At the core, there is just one central government. There is a unicameral legislature that is chosen by the people. Without any share, the central legislature is there to enact laws, the executive to carry them out, and the judiciary to render judgments.
- Uniformity of Laws: Another feature of a unitary government is that its laws are uniform (unlike those of a federation) because just one central authority makes laws that apply to the entire state. While in a federation, the content of the legislation differs from province to province, laws passed at the federal level are uniformly enforced across the remainder of the state without regard to territorial boundaries.
- Explain democratic policies adopted by Government of India which made it a successful federation.
Answer- The successful federation of India has been made possible by the democratic measures listed below.
- Under the Union, State, and Concurrent Lists, the responsibilities of the federal and state governments have been distinguished explicitly. It eliminates the prospect of any interference with how the federal and state governments operate.
- The Union, State, and Local administrations have all agreed to a three-tier form of government. At their respective levels, they control the populace.
- In order to preserve their autonomy, some states, including Jammu & Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh, have received special status.
- The Parliament is not permitted to unilaterally alter the core framework of the Indian Constitution.
- Any change to the Constitution requires the consent of both chambers of the Parliament as well as at least half of the states.
- To minimise any confusion, the Constitution specifies the sources of funding for the various tiers of government.
- Why has federalism succeeded in India? Which three policies adopted by India have ensured this success? [CBSE, Term 1, 2016]
Answer- Federalism is a form of governance where authority is divided among several institutions rather than a single body established by the constitution. The constitution provides specific information on the authority and operations of the various levels of government. India has made an effort to include all of its differences within its federal structure. The following policies will guarantee success:
(i) Linguistic states: States are separated based on the languages used there or in the surrounding area.
For instance, Assamese is the language of Assam, while Marathi is the language of Maharashtra.
(ii) The language policy accords equal rights to all languages. The nation has no official tongue.
(iii) Centre state relations: Powers are distributed among the two states and centres.
- Describe any three steps taken by the Indian Government towards decentralisation of power in 1992. [CBSE OD, Set 2, 2020]
Answer- The following list summarises the main actions made in India in 1992 to decentralise power:
- It formalised local self-governance in Panchayati Raj system.
- It encourages participation in decision-making by lower-level management or individuals to address concerns and problems at the local level.
- To conduct routine local governmental body elections.
- Assign a third of the seats in the local self-government to women.
- The state governments are required in order to distribute certain authority and financial resources to local self-governing organisations.
- Prior to 1992, local government entities were managed by the government; but, following that year, these entities received constitutional standing. To guarantee their equitable participation, seats are set aside for SC, ST, and OBC in elected bodies and the executive head of institutions.
- Why has federalism succeeded in India? Which are the policies adopted by India that have ensured it? Explain. (2013, 2012)
Answer- The success of federalism in India is due to the following reasons-
- The Union Government and State Governments are given three lists of powers—the Union List, State List, and Concurrent List—that are clearly outlined in the Constitution.
- Our nation’s democratic political system assures that the values of federalism, tolerance for diversity, and desire for coexistence have become widely held ideals.
- The process of creating linguistic states. In order to create new states, the borders of a number of old Indian states were altered. To guarantee that speakers of the same language resided in the same state, this was done. To recognise differences based on culture, race, or location, certain states were later established. As an illustration, consider Nagaland, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, and Telangana.
- Restricting Centre-State interactions. The effectiveness of the constitutional provisions for sharing power depends on how the ruling parties and leaders implement them. The same party held power at the federal level and in the majority of states for a very long time. The emergence of regional parties began after 1990.
- The national parties had to form an alliance because no one party was able to win a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, which resulted in a new culture of power sharing and respect for the independence of State Governments.
- Which five provisions of the Indian Constitution make India a full-fledged federation?
Answer-The five clauses listed below turn India into a full-fledged federation.
- Two or more levels of government: Our country is governed by a federal system, which means that there are three levels of government totaling more than two: the Union Government, State Governments, and Local Government.This suggests that the division of powers
and assignment of duties among the many levels of government administration extends beyond two a trio of lists
- Three Lists divide the powers between the Center and the States: The Union list, State list, and Concurrent list are the three lists that divide the powers between the Center and the State. State List deals with concerns pertaining to the States, Union List deals with issues pertaining to the Center, and Concurrent List deals with issues pertaining to the Center and the States simultaneously.
- Rigid Constitution: The Indian Constitution, which is regarded as the supreme law of the land, governs the government of India. Constitutional amendment is a difficult task. A constitutional provision must be ratified by half of the state legislatures in order to be changed; otherwise, the Constitution cannot be changed. India has a bicameral legislature, which means that the Parliament is divided into two houses.
namely, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. One represents the nation, while the other the interests of the individual member nations.
- Financial Autonomy: The Centre and the States both have well-defined revenue streams, which guarantees their respective financial independence. In plain English, the Centre and the State are independent of one another in terms of revenue because they derive their income from distinct sources.
- Independent Judiciary: The foundation of federalism is an independent judiciary. In this case, courts have the authority to interpret the constitution and the authority of the various governmental levels. If a disagreement emerges between the various levels of government throughout the exercise, India’s highest court—the Supreme Court—acts as an umpire.