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CBSE Class 10 Political Science Important Questions for Chapter 1 Power Sharing

 

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing Important Questions

Here are the important questions of 3, 4 and 5 Markers for CBSE Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing.  The important questions we have compiled will help the students to brush up on their knowledge about the subject. Students can practice Class 10 social science important questions to understand the subject better and improve their performance in the board exam. The solutions provided here will also give students an idea about how to write the answers. Take Free Online MCQ Test for Class 10

 

List of Important Question for CBSE Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing

 

 

Q1. Analyze how majoritarianism has increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils?

Q2. Compare the different ways in which the Belgians and the Sri Lankans have dealt with the problem of cultural diversity.

Q3. What is meant by a system of “Checks and Balances”?

Q4. Define the term Ethnic and brief about the ethnic composition of Belgium.

Q5. Explain any three consequences of the majoritarian policies adopted by the Sri Lankan government.

Q6. How far do you agree with the statement that power-sharing is keeping with the spirit of democracy? OR
“Power Sharing is the very spirit of democracy”. Justify the statement.

Q7. Why is Power Sharing desirable? List out reasons for the same.

Q8. How is Belgium’s power-sharing path different from any other country? OR
Explain the four elements in the Belgian power-sharing model.

Q9. What are the different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies?

Q10. Bring out any two sharp contrasts between Belgium and Sri Lankan democracies

 

 

Important Topics of Power Sharing

  1. Geographical, Ethnic details of Belgium and Sri Lanka
  2. Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka
  3. Accommodation in Belgium and its positive outcomes
  4. Reasons as to why power sharing is desirable.

 

Video of Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing Important Questions

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Solutions

Q1. Analyze how majoritarianism has increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils?

Answer

  • Majoritarianism is a traditional political philosophy or agenda that asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language, social class, or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society and has the right to make decisions that affect the society. Under this, the voice of the minority is subdued by the majority group.

Majoritarianism increased the feeling of alienation among Sri Lankan Tamils. This is known on account of the following-

  1. In 1956, an Act was passed to make Sinhala the official language. This disregarded the Tamil Language.
  2. The government followed preferential policies favoring Sinhala applicants for University positions and government jobs, denying the same to the Tamils.
  3. The Constitution provided for State protection and fostering of Buddhism.
  4. Hence, a demand for regional autonomy emerged as Sri Lankan Tamils felt secluded.

 

Q2. Compare the different ways in which the Belgians and the Sri Lankans have dealt with the problem of cultural diversity. (2012)

Answer

  • Although both Belgium and Sri Lanka are democracies, they shared power differently and hence show different results. A comparison into their mode of power-sharing is illustrated below-

 

Belgium:

  • The leaders here chose to respect the feelings and interests of different communities to maintain unity.
  • The Constitution prescribed that the number of Dutch and French-speaking people shall be equal in the Central Government to ensure parity amongst different groups.
  • Along with the State Government, both communities maintained a third kind of Government called ‘Community Government’ which decided on cultural, education and language-related issues.
  • Between 1970 and 1993, the Constitution was amended four times to enable all linguistic groups to live together within the same country.

 

Sri Lanka:

  • In Sri Lanka, there were two major communities, the Sinhalese speaking (74%) and Tamil speaking (18%). The majority community, forced their domination over Tamils, refusing to share power.
  • Both communities lived in tension as the Sinhalese had denied political, educational, religious, employment and economic rights to the Tamils.
  • The Government passed Acts and made rules in a way that increased Sinhala supremacy.
  • Sri Lanka lacked proper division of power thus resulting in a Civil War.

 

Q3. What is meant by a system of “Checks and Balances”?

Answer

  • The Horizontal division of power is referred to as a system of “checks and balances”. Under this, power is shared among different organs of government—the legislature, executive and judiciary. It allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers. This system ensures that a check is maintained on the other organs that exist and there remains a balance when power is shared.

 

Important Questions and Answers

 

Q4. Define the term Ethnic and brief about the ethnic composition of Belgium.

Answer

Ethnic means a social division based on shared culture and common descent. People belonging to an ethnic group may not necessarily share the same religion or nationality.

Belgium is a small country in Europe, having a population of a little over one crore. Its ethnic composition is as follows-

  • 59 percent of the country’s total population lives in the Flemish region and speak Dutch language.
  • Another 40 percent of people live in the Wallonia region and speak French.The remaining one percent of the Belgians speak German.
  • In the Belgian capital, Brussels, 80 percent of the population is French-speaking and 20 percent is Dutch-speaking.

 

Q5. Explain any three consequences of the majoritarian policies adopted by the Sri Lankan government. (2013)

Answer

Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in 1948. The democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala Supremacy. Consequences of these majoritarian policies include-

  • Denial of Equal Rights- The Sri Lankan Tamils felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders were sensitive to their language and culture and the government policies denied them equal political rights which led to an increased feeling of alienation among them.
  • Linguistic and other subversion-The Sri Lankan Tamils felt that the constitution denied them equal rights in politics, in getting jobs and ignored their interests. The relation between the Tamil and Sinhala communities became extremely strained as a result.
  • The demand or separate Eelam- The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in every field.

 

Therefore, the measures adopted by the government to establish Sinhala supremacy led to distrust between the two communities which turned the widespread conflict into a Civil War. As a result, thousands of people of both communities were killed, and many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and lost their livelihoods.

 

Important Videos Links

 

Q6. How far do you agree with the statement that power sharing is keeping with the spirit of democracy? (2012)

OR

“Power Sharing is the very spirit of democracy”. Justify the statement. (2015)

Answer

  1. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise. Power sharing ensures that people have the right to be consulted and have equal participation in the government.
  2. In a democracy, people have a say in governance through their elected representatives. This is the essence of power sharing that grants equal rights to each citizen.
  3. Sharing of power ensures that respect for diversity and desire for living together becomes a shared ideal amongst different communities in a country. It makes the country united and the administration easier.
  4. Power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order through unity of the nation.

 

Q7. Why is Power Sharing desirable? List out reasons for the same.

Answer

  1. Power Sharing is desirable to ensure smooth functioning and avoid conflicts. There are both Moral as well as Prudential reasons for it.
  2. A prudential reason for power sharing is that it helps in avoiding the conflicts between social groups. Example- In India, seats are reserved in the legislature for the weaker sections of the society.
  3. A moral reason for power sharing is it helps in upholding the spirit of democracy. For example- In India, citizens can come together and debate on policies and ideologies of the government.

 

Prudential reason:

  1. Power sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
  2. It is a good way to ensure the stability of political order as social conflict often leads to violence and political stability.

 

Moral Reason:

  1. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. The concept of democracy is a system of government of the people, by the people and for the people, which emphasizes on distribution of power among people.
  2. It involves sharing powers with those affected by its exercise and who have to live its effects, so that the people would be consulted on how they are to be governed.

 

Q8. How is Belgium’s power-sharing path different from any other country?

OR

Explain the four elements in the Belgian power-sharing model.

Answer

The power-sharing arrangements made by the Belgian leaders were different and more innovative. The major elements of the Belgian Model are:

  1. The Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the Central Government.
  2. No single community can take decisions unilaterally.
  3. The State Governments are not subordinate to the Central Government.
  4. Brussels, the capital, has a separate government where both the communities have equal representation.
  5. A third kind of government, ‘Community Government’, is elected by people. This government can decide on cultural, educational and language related issues.

 

Q9. What are the different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies?

Answer

  • Vertical Distribution of Power - When power is shared among governments at different levels, i.e., the Union or the Central Government, the State Government and the Municipality and Panchayat at the lower level, it is known as Vertical Division of power. This is what is a federal system. The Constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of government.

Example: A key change in the Constitution of Belgium in 1993 was that the regional governments were given constitutional powers that were no longer dependent on the Central Government. Thus, Belgium shifted from a unitary to a federal form of government.

  • Horizontal Distribution of Power - Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. This is a horizontal distribution of power. It ensures that power is shared among different organs of government—the legislature, executive and judiciary. It allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers.

 

Example: In India, the judiciary has an independent status. The Supreme Court is the apex court of justice. Parliament is the legislative body where the laws governing the country are made and the Executive is the implementing body.

Apart from this, there also exists-

  1. Division of power between different Social Groups
  2. Division of power between different Pressure Groups, Movements and Political Parties etc.

 

Q10. Bring out any two sharp contrasts between Belgium and Sri Lankan democracies.

Answer

Sri Lanka and Belgium are both democratic countries yet have a very diverse social set-up. Both the countries have adopted very different approaches when it comes to power sharing.

  1. Belgium produced an ideal example of democratic system. It adopted the policy of accommodation of social and ethnic divisions. On the other hand, Sri Lanka also adopted a democratic system but followed majoritarian policies.
  2. Under the Belgium model of democracy, power was shared among two ethnic groups. Sri Lanka favored the interests of the majority Sinhala community.
  3. In Belgium, both the groups had equal share in working of government but in Sri Lanka the minority community was isolated.
  4. To maintain political stability and unity, equal representation was provided to both the groups. Apart from that, community government of both the ethnic groups also existed at the local level. Sri Lanka, however, had no such arrangement.
  5. Belgium constitution was amended four times before arriving at a final draft to prevent civil strife. In Sri Lanka, majoritarianism led to civil war for twenty long years

 

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