Beginning of agriculture and living in a community was the most important development of this period but hunting continued to be the main livelihood.
In the Neolithic Age Man, turned from a food gatherer into a food producer
He moved into larger settlements, cultivated fields, grew crops and lived a settled life.
Remains of animal bones and shelters found at Neolithic sites suggested that they tamed, bred and raised animals, especially those animals which were mild natured.
Thus domesticated animals gradually became different from wild animals.
Over the years man learnt to select, preserve and sow good quality seeds.
Thus domesticated plants became different from wild varieties of the same types.
CONTINUOUS SUPPLY OF FOOD
Growing crops assured man of continuous supply of food. Rearing of animals assured man of a continuous supply of meat, milk and hides.
In order to take care of his crops, man needed to stay at one place for a long time. Hence permanent settlements began to be established and community life began to take shape.
Neolithic man used harder stones to make tools and polished the blades to make then sharper according to his needs.
They also made spindles and bone needles
For keeping the food grains for a longer period they started making baskets out of wild grass and applied clay around it.
Later they started baking clay vessels also.
They even dug pits into the ground to store food.
The most remarkable invention of Neolithic man was the WHEEL.
It helped them to improve transport.
Potter’s wheel improved the process of making pots.
A village life consisted of a few closely built houses surrounded by a common fence of prickly bush or mud wall.
The concept of families came into being in this age and a group of families living and sharing together customs beliefs and practices was called a TRIBE.
The people carried out activities like farming herding, gathering, fishing in groups. The tribe jointly owned natural wealth such as land, forests, water sources etc. There was no inequality.
Men had occupation such as hunting, ploughing, grazing herds of animals.
Women took care of home and children and light agricultural tasks.
Both men and women took part in pot making, weaving and making tools, weapons and ornaments.
They worshipped water, fire, rain and thunder as also the sun, the earth and the stars.
They worshipped The COW in thankfulness for the bounty it provided and the snake in fear.
They buried their dead, sometimes in urns too along with objects they would use during their lifetime…it showed that they believed in life after death. Cremation was also practiced.
They often marked the burial places with huge rectangular blocks of stone called megaliths.