Endocrine system – Control and Coordination CBSE Biology Class 10 Science lesson by by Soma Mukhopadhyay.
CBSE Biology Class 10 Science lesson Endocrine System
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About this Video:
IT IS ALSO CALLED THE HORMONAL SYSYTEM.
IT OFTEN OPERATES IN CO ORDINATION WITH NERVOUS SYSTEM.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HORMONES :
The hormones are secreted in small amounts by the endocrine glands.
The hormones are poured directly into the blood and carried throughout
the body by blood circulatory system
The hormones have their effect at the sites different from the sites where they are made. So, they are also called chemical messengers..
The hormones act on target organs.
The hormones coordinate the activities and the growth of the body.
The excess or deficiency of hormones has a harmful effect on our body.
DIFFERENT ENDOCRINE GLANDS PRESENT IN THE BODY
HYPOTHALAMUS GLAND AND PITUITARY GLAND
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located in the center of the skull. The pituitary gland acts as a master controlling gland, releasing a number of hormones that activate other glands.
Hypothalamus gland is present in the brain. Hypothalamus produces ‘releasing hormones’ and ‘inhibitory hormones’. Hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland.
PINEAL GLAND OR THE VESTIGIAL ORGAN
The pineal gland which is present in the brain has no such function. Pineal gland is supposed to be a vestigial organ.
( Vestigial organs are those organs which no longer function.)
The thyroid gland, located in the neck, secretes the hormone thyroxine. Thyroxine increases body metabolism, in which food is broken down and converted into heat and energy.
The parathyroid glands are four small glands located in the neck behind the thyroid gland. These glands secrete a hormone that regulates the body’s use of calcium and phosphorus to maintain healthy bones. Parathyroid hormone also affects muscle contraction and the conduction of nerve impulses.
Thymus gland lies in the lower part of the neck and upper part of chest.
Thymus gland secretes thymus hormone which plays a role in the development of the immune system of the body.
The pancreas is a long, narrow gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach and beneath the liver. The pancreas secretes insulin, a hormone that regulates the body’s use of sugar
The adrenals are two small glands, each located on the top of one kidney. The adrenal glands releases the hormone epinephrine, which speeds up heart rate and increases blood pressure to help the body cope with emergencies. And also releases hormones that control the level of salts and water in the blood and help regulate the use of sugar. It also secretes small amounts of male sex hormones, or androgens, in both males and females.
Males have sex glands called testes that secrete androgens, male sex hormones. In addition to contributing to male sexual characteristics, androgens contribute to the production of sperm and the development of the prostate gland.
Females have sex glands called ovaries that release hormones called estrogens. These hormones contribute to the development of female sexual characteristics, including skin, hair, and breast development. Estrogens work with certain pituitary hormones to control the menstrual cycle.
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