Central Nervous System – (Control and Coordination) CBSE Biology Class 10 Science lesson by by Soma Mukhopadhyay.CBSE Biology Class 10 Science lesson CENTRA NERVOUS SYSTEM
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About this Video:
CONTROL AND COORDINATION (Central Nervous System)
All living organisms tend to change their position or move as an attempt in response to the change in their environment to their advantage or protection .
STIMULUS AND RESPONSE
Anything or change in the environment that causes an organism to react, is called stimulus.
And the reaction or action of organism in reply of the stimulus is called a response.
The response to stimuli is a characteristic property of the living organisms
Animals can react to stimuli with the help of:
Plants can react to stimuli only with the help of:
Control and Coordination in simple multi cellular organisms take place through only the Nervous System.
Control and Coordination in higher animals including human beings takes place through Nervous System as well as Endocrine System.
Function: Coordinate activities of our body. Its the control system for all our actions, thinking and behavior.
Structural and functional unit: Neuron
a) Central Nervous System (consisting of brain and spinal chord)
b) Peripheral Nervous System (consisting of all the nerves of the body)
Cerebrum is the main thinking part of the brain. It has different areas for performing different functions .it also has sensory areas where information is received from the sense organs and gives the body the ‘sensation’ or ‘feeling’. It also coordinates all the voluntary actions of the body.
Cerebellum helps in maintaining posture and balance of the body. It also enables the body to make precise and accurate movements.
Medulla – It controls various involuntary actions such as heart beat, breathing, blood pressure and peristaltic movements. It is also the controlling centre for reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, sneezing, secretion of saliva and vomiting.
Pons lies above the medulla and it takes part in regulating respiration.
Mid brain controls reflex movements of the head, trunk and neck in response to visual and auditory stimuli.
Spinal chord is a cylindrical structure.
It begins in continuation with medulla and extends downwards.
It is enclosed in a bony cage called vertebral column.
Spinal chord is surrounded by membranes called meninges.
It is a source of 31 pairs of nerves.
The spinal chord is concerned with spinal reflex actions and the conduction of nerve impulses to and from the brain.
PNS is the lateral part of the nervous system that develops from central nervous system connecting different parts of the body with the same.
With the help of peripheral nerves, we are able to carry out voluntary and involuntary actions
THIS IS UNDER THE CONTROL OF OUR WILL.
IT CONSISTS OF CRANIAL NERVES FROM BRAIN AND SPINAL NERVES FROM SPINAL CORD.
The autonomic part of our peripheral nervous system ensures that all our internal organs and glands function smoothly.
Our autonomic nervous system has two parts: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. Both supply essentially the same organs but cause opposite effects. This is because their activating chemicals, or neurotransmitters, are different.
Sympathetic nervous system causes constriction of peripheral blood vessels, dilation of pupils, increased blood supply to heart……whereas
Parasympathetic nervous system causes dilation of peripheral blood vessels, constriction of pupils, reduces heart beat etc.
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