Power Sharing Class 10 Notes and NCERT Solutions for Chapter 1 Political Science
CBSE Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing Notes- Detailed explanation of the chapter 1 Political Science along with Power sharing class 10 question answers. Here is the complete explanation of the lesson along with all the exercises, Important Question and Answers given at the back of the lesson.
- See Video Explanation of Class 10 Political Science Chapter 1 Power Sharing
- Why Is Power Sharing Desirable?
- Forms Of Power Sharing Class 10
- Power sharing Class 10 NCERT Solutions
Class 10 Power Sharing Notes (Chapter 1 Civics)
This Chapter aims at explaining the concept and importance of power-sharing in a democracy as well as other forms of government. With imbalance and odd power distribution between different levels, there arise several problems as well as lead to unfavorable tendencies within nations. The Chapter explains the above using the examples of Belgium and Sri Lanka.
Power Sharing Class 10 Video Explanation
Belgium And Sri Lanka
Belgium, a European country, had two major linguistic groups- French and the Dutch, living within it. There arose several split tendencies amongst the groups but with delegation of equal power as well as maintaining a Community Government, it ensured equal representation. This helped avoid divisive tendencies amongst its people. On the other hand, the insecurity between the Tamil and Sinhala community was not catered to well by the Sri Lankan Government. Favouritism towards the Sinhalese as well as adoption of Majoritarian policies engulfed Sri Lanka into a Civil War.
The Tamils also demanded for a separate Eelam of their own, thus creating a wave of heightened insecurity and inequality in the Country.
Why Is Power Sharing Desirable?
Balanced Power Sharing ensures accommodation as well as avoids unjust use of authority by any majority group. It helps uphold the voice of the minority and makes them feel wanted just as much as any other majority group within the nation.
It reduces conflicts and helps maintain long term peace in the nation. The other reason is that it is a moral thing to do apart from all the prudential reasons mentioned above.
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Forms Of Power Sharing Class 10
Power Sharing can occur at different levels and between different groups, some of them being-
a. Between different organs of Government- This is the sharing of power between the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. This helps to maintain a system of checks and balances in the country while ensuring that there is no unfavorable tilt of power in favor of few individuals.
b. Between different levels of Government- This is the spirit of Federalism and a hallmark of our democracy. We will study this in the next chapter in absolute detail.
c. Between different social groups- Here, power is shared between religious and linguistic groups that are different from one another. Special powers and provisions are given to the socially and economically weaker sections too so that they do not feel alienated.
d. Between different political parties, pressure groups and movements- This is done to ensure that the voice of different contender groups is represented in a democracy. For ex- Different political parties come into power after each election. When a single party fails to secure a majority, it forms a coalition government by entering into an alliance with its opposition parties.
This is how different countries function and maintain a power exchange between different groups. Extreme concentration of power in a single group leads to majoritarian decisions that may not be smooth for a nation’s functioning and hence a balance of power sharing is desirable as well as just.
Power Sharing Class 10 NCERT Solutions
Q1. What are the different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.
Power-sharing in modern democracies occurs in many forms. These are as seen below-
- Horizontal distribution of power – Under this, Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. This distribution of power is within the same level. Example – India.
- The federal division of power – Under this, Power can be shared among governments at different levels – a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. Example – India (Union Government & State Government)
- Community government – Under this, Power is shared among different social groups and within members of a community, such as the religious and linguistic groups. Example – Belgium (Community Government).
- Power-sharing between political parties, pressure groups and movements –This kind of distribution ensures that power does not remain in one hand. In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups.
Q2. State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power-sharing with an example from the Indian context.
Power Sharing is considered desirable both prudentially and morally. Prudential reasons stress that power-sharing will bring out better outcomes. For ex- Reservation is applicable in India, where various sections are given benefits over others to avoid conflicts and also to maintain parity, which is the very essence of power sharing. Moral reasons, on the other hand, emphasise the very act of power-sharing as valuable. In India, citizens are conferred with fundamental rights and directive principles of state policies are implied on the government so as to ensure that it is its moral duty to take care of its citizens and be accountable to them.
Q3. After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
Thomman – Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions.
Mathayi – Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions.
Ouseph – Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.
From the above example, we can conclude that Ouseph’s conclusion is the right one. Every State should have some or the other form of power-sharing. Without a balance of power, any country can collapse. Ex- Sri Lanka. Power-sharing ensures an optimum balance between different sections in the society. The chances of conflict lessen, and so does the injustice. Hence, power-sharing becomes the value of democracy. Also, power-sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order. A successful country in example is Belgium, as seen in the chapter.
Q4. The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools. He said that the ban would help all non-Dutch speakers integrate into this Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power-sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
The measure of the Mayor of Merchtem to ban on French-speaking in the town’s schools near Brussels is unfair. It does not keep with Belgium’s power-sharing arrangement. Power-sharing helps maintain a balance between different sections of society, and in Belgium, there is a need to maintain the power-sharing between Dutch and French to avoid civil unrest. Since there are two communities living in the same territory, one should not be given precedence over another. Hence, banning French will promote the tendency of civil unrest. To promote peace among different communities, the Mayor should promote bilingual education system in the town’s schools.
Q5. Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this. “We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy – in the hands of the people. Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy.”
The prudential reason in the given passage is – “Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency.”
Q6. Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and against power-sharing. Identify those which are in favour of power-sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power-sharing:
- reduces conflict among different communities
- decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
- delays the decision-making process
- accommodates diversities
- increases instability and divisiveness
- promotes people’s participation in government
- undermines the unity of a country
Q7. Consider the following statements about power-sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
- In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.
- In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.
- The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power-sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
- The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) A, B, C and D
(b) A, B and D
(c) C and D
(d) B, C and D
Answer- (d) B, C and D
Q8. Match List I (forms of power-sharing) with List-II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists:
|List I||List II|
|1.||Power shared among different organs of government||A. Community government|
|2.||Power shared among governments at different levels||B. Separation of powers|
|3.||Power shared by different social groups||C. Coalition government|
|4.||Power shared by two or more political parties||D. Federal government|
|List I||List II|
|1.||Power shared among different organs of government||Separation of powers|
|2.||Power shared among governments at different levels||Federal government|
|3.||Power shared by different social groups||Community government|
|4.||Power shared by two or more political parties||Coalition government|
Q9. Consider the following two statements on power-sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:
A) Power-sharing is good for democracy.
B) It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Which of these statements are true and false?
|(a) A is true but B is false|
|(b) Both A and B are true|
|(c) Both A and B are false|
|(d) A is false but B is true|
(b) Both A and B are true
Important Questions and Answers
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